Instrument 1 Phase 2



Step 1

Mapping out the Social Relationships


To map out the social relationships of the entire class. It’s possible to do this with a sociogram. In the ‘tools’ section, you can find a template to construct a sociogram for two classes.

Students Should write in the next Figure (Please Cfr.



The teacher may use the template below to create their own map. You may also use different colours to display the denominations on the class map. But teachers must use this instrument with close attention so the differences within the class never are understood as individual fragilities.

1.1. Analyzing the Sociogram

How to insert data

Download the example of the analysis of the Sociogram. You will find the letters in the text below in the example. The example is the analysis of a real situation but made anonymous.

Step 2

Students Self-Assessment

Self-evaluation:  Basis to Nuance. 

There is nothing that suggests that young people from another country are less able to evaluate themselves in a nuanced way.  Some evaluation skills have little to do with the language of the country of origin.  The ability to make in-depth observations and analysis is connected with richer language skills, but not with a specific language.  In fact, we see that many schools are not accustomed to systematically using self-evaluations and rarely require a student to do it.  This means that in some cases, a number of refugees or newcomers might actually be stronger in self-evaluation than more privileged native students.   

When we bring together a group of well-educated adults into an unknown situation and afterwards discuss this situation with them, we see that they limit their evaluation to the categories of ‘good – not good’.  In other words, in a new context (where a specific language is less necessary to describe a situation), everyone falls back onto the same basic level of evaluation (good – not good).  Evaluation is then very quickly expanded to more emotions.  From Paul Ekman’s research on non-verbal communication, we know that there are about six universal emotions, where facial expressions in all cultures are more or less the same.  These emotions are the following:  happiness, fear, contempt, sadness, disgust (= good and not good) and surprise.  

For a group of newcomers, this is a potentially strong starting point for self-evaluation.  When we combine this with the OICO-principle, then we can develop the following (learning-) path:  

  • Good – not good

  • Evaluation based on feelings

  • Formulation of strengths, coupled with observation, imitation, creation, originality (OICO)

  • Formulation of new challenges and areas of improvement

  • Thinking about the next steps in the learning process

Hence, we use the same symbols throughout the school year:

Evaluation with Rubrics and Based on OICO Principles

The setting up of ‘rubrics’ takes time (and effort).  They need to be as concrete as possible so that the young person is able to see the next step.  By using the OICO-principle as the basis, we ensure that the integration of higher-order skills are made clear.  It’s for that reason that we always place the integration of skills or diverse behaviours under ‘Originality’.  However, when we think in terms of competences, we often see that the learning-processes do not proceed farther than ‘Imitation’.  In other words:  ‘I do this in the way that I was taught and is expected’.


Rubrics that are more elaborated make it clear what the student should be able to do in order that higher order skills can be performed independently and utilized at the appropriate time and level.  In the example given below (see rubrics chart below), all of the aspects of creative writing are elaborated.  In this way, the learner can decide for him or herself on what skill they want to work.  They can decide to postpone working on a sub-skill that they do not yet master.  Sometimes working on a skill that one prefers helps to remove blockages.  Learning is also about being able to let things be and later being able to take them up again.

Rubric for Creative Writing using the OICO-principle

What are the prerequisites to use rubrics for evaluation 

  • A rubric is based on a higher-order skill

  • Sub-rubrics consist of sub-skills of a higher-order skill

  • For each sub-skill, one determines what is understood under the categories of Observation, Imitation, Creation and Originality (OICO).  

  • The rubric is completed with concrete observable behaviour or concrete observable results, not with subjective or moral terms.  We avoid the word ‘able’.  What you are able to do is not observable behaviour.  In this way judgements or evaluations can be made based on what you have SEEN the student do.  

  • When a sub-skill concerns knowledge, then, the first question that one asks is how this knowledge can be used within the context of a higher-order skill.  The ‘how’ of knowledge can be transformed back to a sub-skill. 

The analysis of this rubric makes it clear that

  • The sub-skills at the top of the rubric are connected to the sub-skills placed lower on the chart.   

  • The young person has a clear overview of what it takes to write a strong text.   

  • A young person is able to determine his or her own learning trajectory or path.  For example, a student could initially choose only a few sub-skills under ‘Observation’ and ‘Imitation’, or for all of the sub-skills at once in order to jump to ‘Creation’.  Or a young person could work step-by-step on each sub-skill until he arrives at Creation and Originality, before going on to the next sub-skill.   

  • A young person is able to present a sub-skill that hasn’t yet been dealt with in a lesson.  Thanks to the rubric structure, it becomes observable.   

  • The rubric ‘creative writing’ is preceded by ‘creating telling’.   By flexibly using the rubric, a young person can become an excellent narrator (storyteller) without (yet) being able to write a creative story.    

  • In this rubric, ‘knowledge’ is understood as recognition as well as the ability to apply (use) it, i.e. the ‘how’ of knowledge.  In a rubric about language recognition, this might be presented differently; a young person might be able to list literary devices and provide correct definitions.  

  • A well-constructed rubric provides indications on what an assignment or exercise for sub-skills looks like (coupled with a category from the OICO-principle).  We clarify with two examples:    

    • Associative narration in function of a goal/originality:  You consciously use an effect in function of a narrative goal.   

    • Assignment: Work together with a partner. Tell a story to your partner about the last time you went to the store.  Insert or include made up (imaginary) elements to this story where you work with the feelings of indignation or outrage.  Try to tell it in such a way that the others are unable to tell which part is made up and which part is not (i.e. what really happened). 

    • Literary devices / imitation: You make up and write a story in function of the given literary devices.  

    • Assignment:   Write a text of 20 lines about a lazy afternoon.  Use at least 2 metaphors and 3 alliterations.